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With a view to the internationalization towards foreign markets, a new German language edition it is expected to be released the English version is already available. It is intended for teachers and students of Secondary schools, University and Training Centers. Attraverso questo processo, le [ These myths and misconceptions endured almost up to the present day. The second side of the coin of the debate on Italian Jewish integration concerns its quality and extent in the pre-emancipation period. Autorappresentazioni di una minoranza , Bologna: Between Tradition and Transformation London - Portland: Gli Ebrei in Italia, ed.
There is, however, increasing awareness of the necessity of a regional approach to the study of Italian Jewries: Nevertheless, he deeply engaged himself in this type of researches and devoted a good part of his writings to them, as a way to investigate his Jewish heritage, as we will see. Just like in many other respects of his life, Levi followed nineteenth-century cultural trends in this case too. The study of oriental cultures and religions was fashionable among intellectuals in the s, but from an Italian Jewish perspective is still an understudied phenomenon.
These secret societies and the utopian socialist doctrine occupied a large and important part of his life, from his youth until his death. They did not only constitute a mere biographical aspect of his existence, but also had a strong impact on his mind-set and literary activity. We will address the question: The author did leave us a private diary and an autobiography but, at the present state of research, they are both still unpublished. Thus, I recovered a large number of documents and unpublished texts, which allowed me to reconstruct his biography in more detail.
Levi himself liked to refer to his life as divided in two parts, as suggested by the two aforementioned works: The various aspects of his life actually intertwined in a much more fluid way than this. His writing activity, for instance, took place in all three phases, although it was certainly more intense in the first and especially the last period.
In the past, there has been uncertainty concerning his date of birth. Battezzati, ; and David Levi, Ausonia. Silvana Patriarca and Lucy Riall, Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan, , but has been already applied in the last decade but several historians, such as the renowned Risorgimento historian Mario Banti in several of his works. In fact, in the past it happened relatively often that newborn babies were registered in local archives a few days after their birth, and the registration day was recorded as the date of birth. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that the author reports a wrong date of his own birth.
David Levi Senior, his grandfather, was a successful business man, who combined an elevated education with a keen interest in politics. They owned land and houses, in spite of the prohibition, and ran successful companies. Vallardi, , Diogene Tama e seguita dai processi verbali e decisioni del Gran Sinedrio tomo 1. The wealthy condition of his family allowed young David to be raised in a highly educated and acculturated milieu.
In this stimulating environment, he grew curious and desirous of knowledge and culture. His early education was taken care of by private tutors but was also fostered within his family. He was taught not only the traditional Jewish subjects, but also general secular culture, as was habitual among acculturated and highly integrated Italian Jewish families.
Levi refers that during his childhood he was considered to be rather temperamental and rebellious. His family was forced to change his private tutor several times and nicknamed him piccolo demone [Little Demon]. The socio-economic condition of the Levis offers the opportunity for a first reflection on the theme of integration. In the first place, it suggests that we approach this theme in a much more nuanced and precise way.
This leads to a second consideration, that the process of integration, if not legal at least cultural and economic, is a lot more fluid and less schematized than initially thought and is not exclusively linked to the emancipation period. The author, however, does not provide the source of this piece of information. They celebrated all the Jewish festivities with large family reunions and opened their spacious house to the local Jewish community as a meeting place for the Sabbath rituals.
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Vitalevi possessed a private library, where David Levi spent long hours reading texts related to Italian history, literature and nationalism. Already as a young boy, Levi had ambivalent feelings as regards his Jewish identity. As a matter of fact, Levi maintains that this feeling of oppression was not so much due to their legal or economic situation, but to the anti-Semitic attitude of a part of the population, of which he was a victim on several occasions in his life.
This led him to abandon religion, tradition, and the community still as a young boy. In the early s, his desire to leave the strict boundaries of the Jewish community, his wish to pursue academic studies which were interdicted to Jews in Piedmont at the time but also episodes of anti-Semitism, formed a powerful combination of contrasting factors, which convinced David to leave Chieri. For example, he claims he arrived in Pisa for his studies around , but other sources report he reached the Tuscan city in and graduated in The same discrepancy is found concerning other important episodes.
The reason for this disagreement among the different sources is partly due to the scarcity of documents in our possession and partly to the fact that Levi wrote his memoirs at an old age. At that point in his life, he reconstructed certain details of his biography in an approximate way. At any rate, archival research revealed that in June Levi was admitted to the final exam of the Doctorate in Civil Law at the University of Pisa Fig.
In addition, we know that in he was initiated to Freemasonry and Giovine Italia in Livorno, as we will see later. These documentary elements make a rather likely date of his arrival in Pisa and categorically exclude Even though he was already close to obtaining his Law Degree in Pisa, as we have seen, Levi graduated in from the University of Siena. Why did he leave Pisa when he was so close to his target and completed his studies in Siena?
As we learn from his notes,36 he was affiliated to both societies in in Livorno. He maintains that, at the time, in Livorno the two associations were closely connected and basically managed by the same people,37 following an opinion which was quite diffused among Italian Jewish Freemasons. Up to recent times, it was widespread opinion that Italian Freemasonry basically did not exist in the Restoration period, until the opening of the Italian national lodge in in which Levi played a role.
In the first place, we should not forget that the first reason why a number of Italian Jews sought initiation in Freemasonry in the first half of the nineteenth century was their desire for inclusion in wider non-Jewish society, which was still largely precluded in different terms in the pre-unification Italian states. This took place on two levels: This was the case also for David Levi. Silvana Patriarca and Lucy Riall Basingstoke: La Libera Muratoria e la costruzione della nazione, eds.
Il Mulino, , which deals precisely with the case of David Levi. This, otherwise, would not explain the fact that after the achievement of full civic emancipation the number of Jewish freemasons rapidly increased. The Italian patriot definitely used a religious jargon in his narrations about all these societies.
However, this is also confirmed by other sources. Centro Editoriale Toscano, These elements convinced past scholarship of the great similarities between the values of Freemasonry and those proposed by Reform Judaism, which had a comparable universalistic approach. In after his graduation, Levi returned to Piedmont but did not feel at ease in his home region, which would grant the Jews full civil rights only eight years later. Meyer, Response to modernity. Oxford University Press, Streglio, particularly in its introduction.
Levi himself, however, refers how his socialism was even more strongly nourished by his acquaintance with the Parisian lower classes than by the great teachers he had at the university. This almost straight cultural line prompted his literary activity, the best witness of his world view. Parallel to his cultural education, David did not neglect his active political involvement and engaged in assiduous meetings with Italian patriots in exile, some of which were important collaborators of Mazzini.
The relevance he acquired granted him the opportunity to even meet Giuseppe Mazzini in a couple of occasions and to take part in the organization of a rather important, albeit unsuccessful, mission, that of the Bandiera brothers. After a brief return to his native Piedmont, Levi decided to move to Venice. In his life, was a key year not only for his temporary return to Italy but also for the election of Pope Pius IX, who was initially thought to be of liberal views by the Italian patriots.
Canti storici e liriche61 [Homeland and affections. Historical poems and lyrics]. However, Levi did not leave any literary trace of this specific disappointment, nor rejected, to my knowledge, his poem dedicated to the Pontiff. Towards the end of the century, instead, his disillusionment with the Risorgimento in general and the lack of application of its values clearly emerges in his oeuvre as well. This is particularly evident in his only comedy, Il Mistero delle Tre Melarancie, about which we will discuss further. This type of disillusionment was a common feature among European intellectuals around the turn of the nineteenth-century.
He was elected as a militant of the Historical Left. Construction of a Catholic Hero: Canti storici e liriche Turin: Patria ed affetti was chosen as the title of this dissertation. These journals had the goal of promoting Enlightenment values, as it is already clear by their titles. The Italian historian of the Risorgimento Luigi Bulferetti described David Levi as a socialista risorgimentale [Risorgimento socialist], a type of socialist that conjugated liberal and socialist views, therefore taking a stance that distanced itself from both the ultra-liberal positions and the radical Marxist socialism and communism.
In particular, we know of his frequent attempts to change its political orientation towards a more socialist direction. The evidence of this is an extremely relevant speech the Italian author gave in , on the 65 Luigi Bulferetti, Socialismo risorgimentale Turin: In this speech, he offered an excursus about the history of Italian Freemasonry and the intellectual origins of its ideas and tried once again to influence its political orientation. In fact, during these years he completed or wrote most of his works: It combined the 68 This speech had been printed with the name Programma massonico adottato dalla Massoneria Italiana risocstituita, presentato al G.
Vatri, Uomini e logge nella Torino capitale. Il Mulino, In fact, we count only 3 historical dramas out of a corpus of 24 books. The main features of this kind of drama were its nationalist spirit and the constant reference to current events through the reconstruction of the past. This genre was often utilized by those authors who wanted to deal with patriotic and nationalist themes. David Levi was directly inspired by these works and openly placed himself within this Italian cultural stream. Why did David Levi choose the form of historical drama as his favorite writing genre?
The answer, I believe, cannot be found in a mere stylistic choice but in the nature of the message he wanted to convey. He wished to awaken the Italian consciences and instill in his readers or theater viewers enthusiasm for the Risorgimento through the exemplary use of history and its passions. He had to combine the fictional and the historical, the material and event-related side of history with a representation of its deeper spiritual and passionate side. The dramatic poet saw in history the full manifestation of the national spirit and of every aspect related to it. Il Profeta78 and Giordano Bruno79 have been considered the climax of his production.
The first David Levi, Il profeta o la passione di un popolo: Also published in two editions: Dramma 79 in cinque atti, Rome: Dramma in cinque atti, Rome: Alessandro Grazi aforementioned historical drama on the same philosopher. A historiographical issue, here, is the l0. Italian Orientalist studies in general in the second half of the s, not necessarily carried out by Jewish scholars, mainly focused on Judaism and biblical exegesis, but also included the history of religions.
He too was from a Piedmontese family, and was a patriot, an exile, a politician, member of the Italian Parliament and a writer. Ottino e C, It is true, however, that in Italy the debate on the Bible and religions was a lot less vibrant than in other European countries, where, according to Levi Della Vida,90 these discussions were favored by the vis polemica among different Christian confessions.
Thus, Levi can also contribute to the reconstruction of the development of orientalist studies in Italy. He did not embark in writing a comprehensive history of the Jews. His largest work on Jewish history is perhaps the introduction to Il Profeta. Levi wrote also five political texts: La convenzione e il voto del 19 Ottobre [The convention and vote of October 19] and La convenzione e il voto del 19 Novembre [The convention and vote of November 19] were published in and were simply the commented description of two discussions of the Italian Parliament.
If these two are interesting to understand his political position on a contingent matter, his other political works offered a more global view of his political ideas. Neri Pozza, , The English translation from the Italian original is mine. These reflections led him to two publications. The first was also his very first literary work and was titled La donna [The Woman], published in Turin in , when he was only The second was a much later publication Turin, called Il femminile eterno: Cantico dei Cantici [The eternal feminine: In line with Italian Jewish literary tradition, Levi wrote also numerous poems.
Poetry was actually his most distinctive and maybe favorite form of literary expression. Most of his poems were scattered around different books, sometimes even mixed with prose. For example, his autobiographies alternate prose and poetry. Some were published in literary journals, while others are still unpublished and exist only as manuscripts. Nevertheless, some of them were collected by the author himself as anthologies.
These were generally organized around a theme, mostly related to patriotism and Risorgimento. Thus, as early as he published Patria ed affetti: It is important and intriguing for three reasons: Final remarks on David Levi As his biography clearly shows, David Levi was a rather interesting Jewish intellectual in nineteenth-century Italy, and offers us the opportunity to discuss several relevant historiographical issues.
His constant effort to amalgamate the two main sides of his personality, the Jew and the Italian, and the evident tension within this dualism are his greatest legacy. His originality, however, lies in his alternative approach to modernity: This is particularly relevant as Levi reinterpreted his Jewish identity in a secular key, finding a synthesis which was neither religious nor national, in a word a new modern interpretation of Jewish identity. Finally, his literary works, particularly his historical dramas, are the greatest source for our understanding of this unique character.
The vast quantity of unstudied material, both published and unpublished, promises new intriguing perspectives, not only on his life and oeuvre, but also on modern Italian and European Jewry more in general. How to quote this article: Tullia Catalan, Cristiana Facchini, Quest. Following the path, which had been opened in Mantua by rabbis Simone Calimani and Jakob Rafael Jacob Saraval, Giacobbe turned toward the ideal of the reconcilability of faith with reason, in tune with prevailing tendencies also within non-Jewish bourgeoisie.
Massarani was obsessed with these risks and he consequently acted in order to prevent them. At the beginning of the text he clearly illustrates his opinion affirming that knowledge begins by learning family traditions. Excluded from public office Giacobbe returned to his studies and profession. Successori Le Monnier, , , The impression of 2 turmoil in the face of the revolutionary events was common to varied Mantuan milieux: Tre Lune Edizioni, , , His admirable industriousness in these years was mainly due, according to Tullo, to the affection of his family. Giacobbe seemed to operate in the same spirit in the field of charity.
Generous in dispensing help to those in need of support, he galvanized the strengths in those who asked for help, allowing them to begin again and walk on their own feet. Born into a religious minority, he was holding it dear like any honest man holds dear the cause of the weak because of the ancient persecutions and senseless prohibitions, all of which had not yet disappeared.
Nevertheless he still loved all men; his deep faith, was not wasted on vain appearances, but directed in heartfelt prayer that animated him to carry out good deeds. Intolerance was abhorrent to him but more in the moral 8 perversion it created rather than in the usual offence or damage it caused. For the following quotation in this paragraph, Massarani assumed and maintained for a certain time the direction of the Chamber of Industry for the youth together with a hospice for the poor and elderly that was opened in the Jewish community in For the next ten years, making the most of the generosity of his co-religionist Samuel Trabotti, he developed the project for an institute to which he would be legal consultant until his death.
The institute was meant to provide education for the adolescents, assistance to the infirm, grants to the young of poor families, and encouragement prizes for workers. He held steadfastly to his cornerstone: Rather, it could be stated that he shared the idea, to which they all agreed in principle, to defer the definition of the institutional framework to apply at the moment of the complete liberation of Italy from foreign dominance.
It would not, however, be rash to presume that, like his son, he had not approved of the decision taken on 12th May by the provisional Government to hold a referendum on the proposed merger. We talked and listened with reverence to the ruler of the Venetian Republic about the king who, loyal and a soldier, pledged himself to Italy; we celebrated the new dawn of the Latin people; we exulted at the flash of the guns, the waving of those flags that to the French announced the taking of Sebastopol: La rivoluzione del Risorgimento Bologna: Il Mulino, , Con una scelta di Poesie postume inedite e Ritratto Milan: Hoepli, , 61 e Daniele Manin e Giorgio Pallavicino.
Epistolario politico , ed. Emanuele Baccio Maineri Milan: Bortolotti, , ; but the following mention of common exultation for the capture of Sebastopoli would lead us to suppose a previous meeting in Nonetheless, the percentage of Jewish elite that lived in rural areas was not insignificant and, in the second-half of the eighteenth century, agriculture represented for them already an important sphere of activity.
Forni, , facsimile of 1st ed. Franco 27 Angeli, 68, tab. See Libri partitari di Poggio Rusco, reg. In the mid-nineteenth century it became the property of Tullo Massarani. He sold the Palace to the City of Poggio Rusco in Other properties, which Giacobbe bought towards the end of the decade, were in areas relatively distant from the ghetto: Delegazione Provinciale, Affari riservati, b. Giacobbe had also studied with Idelfonso Valdastri, the successor of Prandi to the chair of logic and metaphysics at the lyceum in , who taught him the rudiments of philosophy.
It is worth recalling that the Mantuan professor, while trying to reconciliate the Christian faith with reason, vividly criticized the deists, guilty of openly questioning the truths of the Catholic religion In another work he vehemently attacked not only superstition in general, but also, although with caution, the yielding to superstition of those same Mosaic and Catholic religions of which he affirmed the truth. La Huova Italia, , e , with extensive bibliographical references.
Tipografia Giovanni Agazzi, , In this environment, the apologia for the scorned Christian religion co- existed with the criticism both of superstition and, more generally, of the ingrained prejudices that were considered the main obstacles to the diffusion of knowledge for the good and public felicity.
Le grandi carestie degli anni sessanta. Giovan Battista Speraindio Marida Brignani and Maurizio Bertolotti Florence: Intolerance was abhorrent to him but more in the moral perversion it created rather than in the usual offence or damage it caused. Thus, such a distancing implies his separation from any form of positive religion, while calling for a belief in faith manifested through love for all men.
The strong entrepreneurial and capitalistic orientation of this group might explain part of this process. The progressively widening range of business dealings that led to ever closer business relations with non Jews, and the experience of different cultural environments, alongside with the competition between Jewish companies leading to marked quarrelsomeness contributed to these changes and to the weakening of the traditional society. During his stay in Bologna, the young Mantuan Jew definitively identified himself with the traditions of the Italian, and especially Lombard, Enlightenment.
The allusion of the son to the irrationality of the traditions and institutions of the past and the commitment to the application of knowledge to social progress pays tribute to the work of the great Enlightenment thinker Cesare Beccaria. A further proof of this relationship may be documented by the friendship Giacobbe established in Milan with one of the most important members of the Italian Risorgimento, Gian Domenico Romagnosi.
In correspondence with his maestro until his death in , Tullo was always grateful and devoted, speaking of the education 52 See ibid, , Ceschina, , I, , 8. Norsa, however, could not find peace because he was tormented by an unbearable need to believe. The long crisis was resolved through baptism, which opened the way — as he recounts — towards the recognition of the necessity to ask for the gift of faith through the grace of God.
Successori Le Monnier, , I , Tipografia Cooperativa, , I felt it too much myself not to appreciate it. The impatience of Norsa affected not only the Jewish religion but also other aspects of the culture of the community to which Tullo belonged: This distaste ended, he recounts, in The disciple trod in his footsteps: One must bear in mind the acceleration that the revolution impressed on social and cultural life, and namely on the understanding of religion among the educated classes.
Massarani gave more than one testimony on his inability to believe. The author, who offers an accurate reconstruction of the dynamics of the revolution, is less interested to their connection with the long-running processes. Tullo and Jewish Identity These concluding remarks convey two recurring themes in the writings of Massarani.
First of all, he seems to stress the religious inspiration of the national ideals shared by the patriots of the Risorgimento; secondly, he highlights the deprecation of forms of materialism which became ever more powerful after the end of the heroic season of political unification. Drucker e Tedeschi, Confidenze postume di un onesto Borghese What Doctor Lorenzi thought. The point of arrival could be a renewal of Judaism or a return to evangelism, Saint Simonism or freemasonry, the religion of the fatherland or the religion of progress, but some significant traits unite all those who live these experiences of crisis and transition.
Secondly, the aspiration to a form of religion in which the attenuation of the most visible and external characteristics of the cult 67 Tullo Massarani, Come la pensava il dottor Lorenzi. Le Monnier, , 1st ed. Forzani, , Zamorani, , , Einaudi, , Storie del Risorgimento Milan: Feltrinelli, , ff. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, revised ed.
Verso, , A comparison — even if rapid — of the paths taken by David Norsa, David Levi71 and Tullo Massarani the latter, following the path opened by his father is very instructive. The point of departure for all three was the same: The point of arrival, however, was to an extent different. All three embraced at the same time the religion of the fatherland; Norsa in the form of moderate monarchism,72 while the other two in a form of Mazzinianism from which, however, Massarani distanced himself in the s, to eventually identify himself with the constitutional monarchism of Cavour.
With the exception of some letters to the presidents of the Insubria, La Ragione and Cisalpina, three important lodges, together with a commemoration of Giovanni Faldella,73 Massarani never referred to this allegiance, nor, as far as I am aware, ever wrote about freemasonry. Even if his declared, yet moderate atheism might have proven incompatible with the 71 With regard to Levi the essays by Francesca Sofia are essential: Saggio storico-critico con illustrazioni e molti documenti inediti Bologna: Zanichelli, , I, There is nothing more irrepressible nor anything that refuses to be defined or categorised more than belief.
For me the sanctity of innermost conscience is violated from the moment that a person is obliged to suffer one of those definitions, to throw himself headlong into one of those categories pre-established by law.https://esoffunfomis.tk/hopu-chat-les-terra.php
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Suppose for example that one who belongs by birth to a religious minority— and does not wish to deny it if for no other reason than that it seems ungenerous to separate oneself from the few who were previously the weak and oppressed—would he not have the right to turn to the legislator and judge and to keep a language of this type: I do not repudiate the traditions of my fathers; but I do not recognise in these traditions anything that confers, with any ritual, the authority to bind my conscience more than the commitment of a solemn testimony of the truth [ Thus allow me to solemnly attest the truth without 78 suffering a ritual that is not mine, and without repudiating my conscience?
In , on the occasion of the expulsion of the Jews from Moscow, he took part in a subscription in their favour promoted by his friend Antonio Allievi, accompanying his donation with a letter. Here he lamented the fate of those poor wretches and, even more so, the fate of the end of the century in which he was living: In Levi had asked Massarani for his financial support for the renovation of the Jewish cemetery, but Tullo had made an eloquent refusal that, among other things, sheds light on the implications of the letter to Macchi two years earlier.
This can be considered as probably the most significant document on the relationship of Massarani with Jewish tradition and of his concept of relations between Jews and non-Jews. He later became a fervent fascist, faithful to Mussolini notwithstanding the racial laws, and died at Auschwitz in It is fortunate that in Italy the cancer of anti-Semitism has not taken root; this is due, I believe, in great part to the Israelites having made every effort to give a good account of themselves in all the intellectual and civil fields, without accentuating their countenance, that labels them as a distinct stock, not irrevocably mixed and merged in the bosom of the nation to which they belong.
Israelitism is the cult of a minority and cannot and must not be a symbol of a separate literary or political movement. All of which makes me think of the existence of a separate cultural orientation which returns to damage that assimilation that must be in the wishes of all citizens devoted to their country and to 84 equal rights. The answer Massarani gave Dante Lattes who had sent him the text of his lecture on Max Nordau held in Trieste February 6, should also be quoted in full.
Tullo Massarani after The contrary hypothesis — that would in any case be submitted to the verification of a specific investigation — seems more plausible to me: Y0d6 to G3h 6: I warmly thank Balzani for allowing me to read and cite his text before publication. Confidenze postume di un onesto borghese Florence: For about ten years, or perhaps fifteen or twenty if I remember correctly, we all more or less loved one another. And also of sward fighting! Oh, years tragically great and divine of conspiracies of each and all in one idea alone, of heroic silences, of magnanimous suicides, of the gallows met head-held-high as if a victory, greeted with tears like a promise of redemption, honoured in military actions, storybook fortunes and even undeserved victories!
In the eyes of Massarani, the Jewish question took shape as an aspect of the national question, but both presupposed the social question. Where can you find the recipients of help in good relations with their benefactors, to see stability and solidarity grow in the Community as the great sociologist stated that thanks to reciprocal benevolence it should happen? It was primarily this rural middle-class that raised the question of the improvement of the living conditions of the peasants and dealt extensively with their education and moralization, as an indispensable factor in the process of the capitalist transformation of agriculture and, more generally, economy.
As observed, the welfare and educational institutions supported by the Jewish community as well as those that thanks to Ibid. Museo del Risorgimento, , If this regeneration were to take place, these institutions would have had, like the analogous non-Jewish institutions, to meet the wishes of their supporters in encouraging solidarity between the social classes. Both direct and indirect testimonies indicate how selfless he was in trying to pursue it. The tenor of his reports with country dwellers is clear from a letter written in where he describes the warm reception he received during one of his visits to his lands in the countryside.
In this context the action that he took in the Senate in favour of legal measures limiting the work of women and children and on safety at work acquire a particular significance. It was not possible to trace the article in the Diritto referenced by the editor. Ideologie, retoriche, politiche, eds.
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Le Monnier, and Finally, a clear division took place within the rural democratic middle-class between the supporters of the cooperation among classes, and the ones who followed the socialist ideas stressing the cultural and political autonomy of the agricultural proletariat. It is in this context that we may better understand the full sense of the disillusion and distrust in the present described by Massarani in his works in the s and s.
Finally, it is on this backdrop that the lives and works of Giacobbe and Tullo Massarani bear an extraordinarily valuable witness of the history of the Jews in Mantua and Italy in the era of emancipation and, more widely, of the history of Italian society in the nineteenth century. M aurizio Bertolotti has been president of the Istituto mantovano di storia contemporanea since He has been doing research on several subjects: His main publications are: Einaudi, 3 Le complicazioni della vita. In the last decade he has been working on the relations between Jews and non-Jews in the context of the history of Mantua; on this subject he published the following essays: Marida Brignani e Maurizio Bertolotti, Florence: Manifestazioni antisemitiche nel mondo socialista italiano dell'Ottocento, in Antisemitismi a confronto: Pus, ; Sette ebrei sulla forca.
Per Edriano Prosperi, eds. Edizioni della Normale, 2M11 NM6. QST to q G ote this article: ZGllia [atalan, [ristiana Facchini, Quest. Elena Raffalovich Odessa — Florence is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon. Among his main works see in particular Russkie v Italii: The Cultural Heritage of Emigration: International Scholarly Conference ed. Other authors who wrote on the topic: Ettore Lo Gatto, Russi in Italia: Editori Riuniti, ; I russi e l'Italia, ed. Scheiwiller, ; N. For a general overview of the Russian Diaspora in Italy, the site http: Da Montaigne a Goethe Naples: Electa, ; Attilio Brilli, Il viaggio in Italia: Concerning the Russian romantic fascination for Italy, which reached its peak in the middle of the nineteenth century see Olga Matich, Erotic Utopia.
During his long sojourns abroad he studied law at La Sapienza University in Rome, where he became associated with another Ukrainian Jewish emigrant, Pinhas Rutenberg , the father of the hydroelectric infrastructure of British Palestine. See Vincenzo Pinto, Imparare a sparare: L'Occidente e l'Italia nella biografia di I. My Version of the Facts, Evanston: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, For a first approach to his familiar story and his Odessian years see in particular Da Odessa a Torino.
Conversazioni con Marussia Ginzburg. Maria Chiara Avalle Turin: However, very little has been written about the travelers themselves, their motivations for permanent or temporary migration, and the effect of their political and intellectual activity on contemporary Italian culture. A lack of relevant statistical data makes it difficult to paint an accurate picture of the social, religious, ethnic, and gender characteristics of the Russian diaspora in the Italian Peninsula. Elena Raffalovich Odessa — Florence is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon [Fig.
While her intellectual trajectory is representative of that of many other Russian Jewish women living in Italy at that time, it also challenges a number of historiographic Fig. The past two decades have witnessed a considerable amount of scholarship devoted to Italian Jewish women,8 but their stories are still largely absent from the master narratives of the Italian Jewish past. Fonti e temi per la storia delle donne a Livorno, eds. Motivations for Her Jerusalem Journeys], in Iggud: Selected Essays in Jewish Studies.
World Union of Jewish Studies in Hebrew. The intellectual biography of Elena Raffalovich is also interesting in light of the history of the Jewish family in nineteenth-century Europe. Michele Luzzati and Cristina Galasso Florence: Champion in Italian Le Emancipate. Dal Rinascimento alla Restaurazione Rome: Myths and Reality, eds. Other than the strong attachment of the young Elena to her father, who appears as a mentor and indefatigable supporter of Elena,16 little is known about her earlier years in Russia.
The Raffalovichs may have chosen Italy as a destination because of familial ties to the Morpurgos of Triest. Too, Odessa was in many ways a culturally Italian city, as much as it was under the spell of French models and fashions. Research and Historiography, ed. Nestor History in Russian. It includes only the brief biographical sketches of Herman, Marie and their three sons.
Elena is mentioned only in a note drawing information from an article in the Italian Wikipedia. Indiana University Press in order to understand the dense intellectual, commercial and matrimonial networks established by the Raffalovichs across Europe as an example of the transnational character of the migrational patterns of Odessa Jews. Nowadays, Elena Raffalovich is remembered more for her illustrious descendants than for her own merits. Catholics and Society in Western Europe, eds.
Leuven University Press, Vita del prete Lorenzo Milani, Milan: Rizzoli, ; G. Guzzo, Don Lorenzo Milani. Un rivoluzionario, un santo, un profeta o un uomo? Borla, ; Antonino Bencivinni, Don Milani: Armando editore, ; E. Martinelli, Don Lorenzo Milani: Lezioni di utopia, Pisa: Lorenzo Milani, Tommaso Fiore e le esperienze pastorali, Trapani: La Vita, Casale Monferrato: Prigionieri in riva al mare Trieste: Lint, ; Paul Roazen, Edoardo Weiss: Alle origini della psicoanalisi italiana.
Le vicende di Nathan, Bartol e Veneziani, Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, Her independent lifestyle and continuous traveling were apparently incompatible with raising her daughter, who was left in the custody of her father and later put in a college. This is how Domenico describes the reasons for the separation: Affetta da malinconie isteriche [ This occurred in 23 Tossizza was a family of Greek descent from Leghorn that had commercial ties with Odessa.
Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, , The Italian civil code did not offer this possibility at the time,27 and the only option was to resort to an ecclesiastical forum, a move that would have proved expensive and difficult. Mia moglie rischia di morire [asphyxia. My wife is at risk of death]. Il pensiero e l'opera, 2 Voll. Biblioteca Nazionale Pedagogica concerning the project to found a kindergarten in Venice. Abbiamo veduto come di gran cuore egli accordasse la mano della figlia minore Elena ad un giovane filologo professor universitario da lei stessa scelta a suo sposo.
We can testify how happily he agreed to the marriage of his younger daughter Elena to a young university professor whom she chose. In the private collection belonging to Elisa Frontali Milani there are many letters of Leon addressed to Domenico, who studied Russian and frequently travelled to Russia for his researches on the Kalevala. Unfortunately, only one letter in his huge correspondence survives that is seemingly addressed to Elena. See Catalogo generale del fondo Domenico Comparetti, carteggio e manoscritti, eds.
Her earlier efforts in March to persuade the council that oversaw kindergartens in Pisa to adopt Froebelian methods encountered the same opposition in a Catholic milieu, and did not produce any results. Two years later, after visiting different kindergartens in Munich, Stuttgart, Gotha, Dresden and Leipzig37 and obtaining the official support of the municipal council on March 15th ,38 Raffalovich launched in Venice her own Froebelian kindergarten, with Marie Ringler as its head teacher. The archive preserves as well a number of letters between the mayor of the city and Elena.
Elena was not present at the ceremony and all the official discourses were delivered exclusively by males, among which Adolfo Pick whose lecture has been reprinted in Gasparini, Adolfo Pick, , La scuola fa la storia: Maria Teresa Sega Venice: Edizioni Nuovadimensione His second wife and former pupil Luise Levin, whom he married in , was Jewish. Nadia Maria Filippini Milan: Franco Angeli The extant bibliography about the work and the life of these female writers is still scant. Genere e intercultura, eds. Clotilde Barbarulli and Liana Borghi Cagliari: Laura Orvieto has been the object of valuable studies by Caterina Del Vivo.
Vita e Pensiero, , in particular chapter IV. Otherwise some important, albeit incidental, remarks about this cultural phenomenon can be found in Alberto Cavaglion, Giornale di Emanuele Rome: La Fenice republished in Ebrei senza saperlo Naples: She was also one of the first of the many Jewish female authors for children in Italy during the Savoy monarchy. Also in the projected foundation of a female college in Florence, Jewish women, such as Giulia Raccah and Ester Coen Pardo, occupy prominent roles together with women belonging to the foreign, mainly Anglo-Saxon, colony established in the Tuscan capital.
It is reputed that Elena did not overly appreciate Salis Schwabe. Scuole e modelli di vita femminile nell'Italia dell'Ottocento ed. Cura, educazione e rappresentazione, Venezia , eds.
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Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana ; James C. She was the grandmother of the eminent orientalist Giorgio Levi Della Vida. Much has been written on the obstacles Raffalovich encountered in imposing her views in the provincial and chauvinist context of Italian institutions. L'educazione della prima infanzia: Cura, educazione, rappresentazione , eds. Nowadays the kindergarten is located in the Ghetto Vecchio of Venice.
Elena admits in a letter from Paris to Pick dated January that she has no experience in dealing with money and that her father was in charge of all the financial aspects of the school, see Gasparini, Adolfo Pick, She never stopped helping the poorest, donating jackets and clothes she had made by herself. Jewish and Catholic, female and male children shared the same spaces and participated in common activities. D Elena did not approve of the greater care male children received in the mixed schools she had the opportunity to see in France in ,63 where she regularly went to visit with her sister Marie.
Besides education, Raffalovich was also involved in social projects for the improvement of the working class condition. After the catastrophic floods of , together with Stefania Omboni she ran a popular soup kitchen in Padua, later to become a non-profit corporation. La infancia ayer y hoy, eds. With the latter she had a very strong sentimental, albeit platonic, relationship in the last years of his life.
Immagini e storie di donne, eds. Il poligrafo, In fact, she was more highly valued by her contemporaries for the economic means at her disposal than for her specific program of pedagogic renewal. It seems as though she had decided to jettison her past. Wilfrid Laurier University Press quotes two letters to A. Pringle June, 30, and July, 2.
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University of Washington Press has till now completely disregarded the considerable role of different Raffalovich family members in Italy, France and England in social relief activities. Yale University Press Book enthusiastically reviewed by Cesare Cases, Il testimone secondario: Saggi e interventi sulla cultura del Novecento Turin: Editions du Cuvier XXI. She is reputed to have translated from Russian the memories of the Decembrist Nikolai Basargin , although I was not able to find any exemplar of this translation.
Also lost is a novel supposedly written by Raffalovich. Basargin, a humanist and liberal writer, seems to be very important for any attempt to understand Raffalovich and her views. He and other Decembrists developed new progressive educational methods in Siberia for peasants and their children. They wrote school books and among many new ideas, they stressed notion of moral education.
Let the rich rot in their corruption 80 and let us wait for progress from where it may come]. See the book of recollections published in by Sergei D. Sheremetev on Elizabeth Dehler- Sheremetev. Religious practice was not particularly strong in her family of origin. La famiglia Vivante a Trieste dall'emporio alla guerra mondiale, Gorizia: Libreria editrice goriziana and Cesare Vivante, La memoria dei padri: Vittorio Castiglioni, chief rabbi of Rome, asked to be cremated, in the midst of polemics but also acquiring support for his choice. Vieusseux, Palazzo Strozzi, that can be consulted in the site http: Einaudi , Harvard University Press , Le ebree e le protestanti d'Italia, eds.
Claire Honess and Verina Jones Turin: From the 18th to the 20th Century, eds. Joyce Goodman, James C. The National Art Gallery holds a collection of letters by Raffalovich. The University of Texas at Austin: That Raffalovich ancestors were Iberian conversos escaping the Inquisition who found refuge in Sweden and then came to Russia in the path of Charles XII,93 is a tale caught in legend relying only on the presence of a swallow flying over the seas in the family arms [FIG. According to a tradition bequeathed by the Hassidic branch of the family, the first to bear this surname was Moshe Parnes, son of Rafael, ship builder for the Russian army, when in during a visit of Catherine the Great, the empress would have bestowed upon him his patronymic Raffalovich, replacing the surname Parnes that was used till then.
Although most of these first-generation Raffalovichs had some degree of familiarity with the Russian language and culture, something quite unusual among the Jews of the Pale of Settlement at the turn of the century, only the branch established in Odessa became rapidly estranged from traditional ways of life. Those living in smaller localities of the interior, such as Bogopol, remained attached to the Lubavitch Hassidic movement till the beginning of the twentieth century. In he moved with his parents to Palestine, where he became a pioneer of photography in the country.
He later studied in the rabbinical seminary of Berlin and served at congregations in Manchester and Wales and the Hope Place Synagogue in Liverpool. He was the brother of Shemuel Refaeli — , a numismatist and director of the numismatic department of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine. He left his coin collection to the Bezalel Museum. A cultural History Stanford: Stanford University Press , Bloch Publishing Company Finanza internazionale e imperialismo, Turin: He married Elena Polyakov, daughter of the state counsellor Yaakov Solomonovich Polyakov , brother of the famous banker and merchant Lazzaro Samuele.
The latter was an impressive matron, tiny but with an iron will. When she saw the sweet baby she exclamaid: Oxford University Press and in particular chapter 9. Consequently, their freedom to find a partner outside the inner circle of close relatives was more limited. Moritz Askenasy , member of the Imperial Council of ;: Although both men were wealthy Jews, they did not belong to the circle of close relatives. G thus embracing Catholicism.
To find the earliest examples of total estrangement from Judaism among male representatives of the family, we have to look to those who did not seek a commercial career. Ambrogio Olona , founder of the homonimous bank in Italy at the end of the nineteenth century. See Ludovico Toeplitz, Il banchiere, Milan: Edizioni Milano Nuova, After attending the Richelieu Lyceum, the most prestigious school in Odessa, Arthur studied medicine in Prague, Berlin and Tartu, graduating in obstetrics and surgery and becoming a leading physician in Odessa on tuberculosis and plagues.
In Arthur converted to Russian orthodoxy and changed his name to Artemi Alexievich, the first of the many conversions in the following years, when as for many Jews in Western Europe, social and geographical mobility had eroded the fundaments of traditional Jewish practice.
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